'Standard' (30 days + 1 day/move, max 45 days)
This game is being played under Shatranj rules. Click the 'info' tab for more information.
1. e3 c6
Clock started on 12/30/2010
2. f3 f6 3. Qe2 f5 4. d3 c5 5. c3 Nc6 6. b3 Nf6 7. f4 e6 8. Qf3 d6 9. a3 b6 10. Ra2 Rb8 11. Rf2 g6 12. Ne2 Rg8 13. g3 h6 14. Nd2 g5 15. h3 Rb7 16. e4 h5 17. Be3 g4 18. Qg2 Rh7 19. h4 Bh6 20. Kd1 Rgg7 21. Nc1 b5 22. Re2 Kd7 23. exf5 exf5 24. b4 cxb4 25. axb4 Re7 26. Bg5 Rxe2 27. Nxe2 Nd5 28. d4 Rh8 29. Bd3 a6 30. Bxf5+ Kc7 31. Bd3 Be6 32. Kc2 Bc4 33. Nc1 Bxf4 34. gxf4 Nxf4 35. Rg1 d5 36. Nf1 Re8 37. Ne3 Kd6 38. Re1 Re4 39. Nb3 Rxe3 40. Rxe3 Nxg2 41. Re8 Nxh4 42. Rh8 Nf3 43. Rxh5 Ne1+ 44. Kd2 Nf3+ 45. Ke3 Ne1 46. Nc5 Ng2+ 47. Kd2 Qe7 48. Bxe7 Nxe7 49. Rg5 Nf4 50. Rxg4 Ne6 51. Ke3 Nc6 52. Rh4 Ne7 53. Rh6 Ng8 54. Rg6 Ne7 55. Rf6 Ng8 56. Rf7 Ne7 57. Nb7+ Kd7 58. Bf5+ Ke8 59. Nd6+ Kd8 60. Bd3 Nc6 61. Bxb5 axb5 62. Nxb5 Ne7 63. Na3 Nc8 64. Kd3 Nd6 65. Rh7 Nf4+ 66. Kc2 Ne6 67. Kb3 Nc7 68. Nc2 Nf5 69. Ne1 Ne7 70. Ka4 Nf5 71. b5 Nd6 72. b6 Na6 73. Nd3 Ne4 74. Kb3 Kc8 75. Nf4 Nd2+ 76. Kc2 Ne4 77. Nxd5 Nd6 78. Kd3 Be6 79. Nc7 Nxc7 80. Rxc7+ Kd8 81. d5 Bc8 82. Ra7 Nb5 83. Ra5 Nd6 84. c4 Nb7 85. Ra7 Nc5+ 86. Kd4 Nb3+ 87. Kc3 Nc5 88. Kb4 Nd3+ 89. Kb5 Ne5 90. b7 Kc7 91. bxc8=Q+ Kxc8 92. Re7 Nd3 93. c5 Kd8 94. d6 Kc8 95. Kc4 Nb2+ 96. Kb3 Nd3 97. Kc3 Nf4 98. Kd4 Ng6 99. Rf7 Kb8 100. Ke4 Nh4 101. Rg7 Kc8 102. Rg4 Ng2 103. Rxg2
White win


Shatranj is a traditional game that first appeared in Persia around the 7th century AD and remained immensely popular throughout the Middle East for the next nine centuries. Shatranj is said to have supported professional players, produced several books and inspired its own body of chess problems or mansubat. And it is likely to be the predecessor of modern chess.

 

1. Pieces and Movement

Shatranj can be played with a traditional chess set: the start position is similar to that of standard chess, with Alfils replacing Bishops and Firzans replacing Queens.

 

Shatranj initial position (rnbqkbnr/pppppppp/8/8/8/8/PPPPPPPP/RNBQKBNR)

Shatranj initial position

http://smcdn.indefinitedoubt.com/static/legacy/images/sets/shatranj/wk.gif
Shah (king) moves as in standard chess, except there is no castling
http://smcdn.indefinitedoubt.com/static/legacy/images/sets/shatranj/wr.gif
Rukh (chariot, rook) moves as in standard chess
http://smcdn.indefinitedoubt.com/static/legacy/images/sets/shatranj/wn.gif
Faras (horse, knight) moves as in standard chess
http://smcdn.indefinitedoubt.com/static/legacy/images/sets/shatranj/wp.gif
Baidaq (soldier, pawn) moves as in standard chess, except there is no initial two-step and it always promotes to Firzan
http://smcdn.indefinitedoubt.com/static/legacy/images/sets/shatranj/wq.gif
Firzan (vizier, queen) moves to the first diagonal square
http://smcdn.indefinitedoubt.com/static/legacy/images/sets/shatranj/wb.gif
Alfil (elephant, bishop) leaps to the second diagonal square, can jump over some other piece (like knight).

The game was designed to represent an ancient battlefield. The Baidaq is a soldier, the Firzan is a trusted military advisor (this metaphor is also behind the promotion rule); the Rukh (chariot), Faras (horse), and Fil (elephant) represent advanced ancient military units.

 

2. Rules

The rules of Shatranj are similar to Standard Chess, with the following exceptions:

  • Stalemate counts as a win (if you have no legal move, you lose),
  • Bare King counts as a win, provided that your King cannot be bared on the very next move,
  • Two bare Kings count as a draw,
  • The piece set is changed (alfils and firzans instead of queens and bishops, see above),
  • There is no initial two-step pawn move (and of course no en-passant), no castling, and pawns arriving at the last rank always promote to Firzans

There are check and checkmate, and they work just as they do in standard chess.

 

3. Game hints

Here are some basic suggestions about game play.

 

3.1. Pieces strength

The strongest piece is of course the rukh (rook). If, following standard chess, we keep the values for the rooks (5 units) and knights (3 units), then the firzan would be worth at most 2 units, the alfil about 1, and pawns between 0.5 and 1 (the central pawns being more valuable than those on the side). The low value of the pawns is caused by the fact that they can only promote to firzans. The low value of the alfils is because each alfil can access only 1/8 of the board.

The tenth-century master As-Suli set out the values thus: rukh: 5, knight: 3¹⁄₃, firzan: 1²⁄₃, alfil: 1¹⁄₄, central pawn: 1¹⁄₄, bishop and knight pawn: between ⁵⁄₆ and 1, rook pawn: ⁵⁄₈.

Each alfil can access only 8 squares on the board, and those squares do not overlap. So it is impossible to (directly) exchange alfil for alfil. One can also consider avoiding squares reachable by one's opponent's alfils while deciding where to place important pieces and pawns. At the same time, one's own alfils can be useful to defend important pawns (this is why some openings leave pawns on d3 and e3).

 

3.2. Openings

The game is generally slower than standard chess. In particular, it takes time before the true battle begins: during opening one can develop almost uninterrupted by the opponent for some time. So, the exact sequence of opening moves is not very important; the resulting structure matters. Below are example structures (tabiyas) analysed in traditional literature:

 

Mujannah tabiya (8/8/8/8/2P2P2/1PNPPNP1/P6P/1RBQKBR1)

Mujannah tabiya

 

Mashaikhi tabiya (8/8/8/8/3PP3/1PPQ1P1P/P2NN1P1/R1B1KB1R)

Mashaikhi tabiya

 

Sayyal tabiya (8/8/8/8/6P1/PPPPPP2/4NR1P/1NBQKBR1)

Sayyal tabiya

 

Muwashshah tabiya (8/8/8/5P2/3P2P1/PPPQPN2/3N3P/1RB1KBR1)

Muwashshah tabiya

Black can pick the same, or other structure, as white. So, there can be Double Mujannah game (when both players picked Mujannah setup), or Mujannah-Mashaikhi game.

The typical aim of the opening and the early middlegame is to gain space, connect the rooks (second rank is often used for the task), favourably open some file(s), create outposts for the knights, and, if possible, invade the opponent's camp with a rook (or both), supported by knights, and sometimes alfils. Such an attack need not necessarily lead to mate, but frequently lets one win significant material.

 

3.3. Middlegame

Contrary to standard chess, one can often find oneself unable to defend some piece or square in spite of having tempi or even a few available for the task. Except the rooks, all pieces are short range, and it takes time to move them to the other area of the board. Therefore it is important to create a solid structure, where pieces and pawns defend one another. For the same reason, local advantages (having more pieces in some area of the board) are likely to stay for a few moves.

Typical game strategy is oriented rather towards winning material, than creating mate threats (although there are exceptions). Sacrifices happen rarely (if ever). The main tactical (strategical?) theme is to outnumber the opposing pieces in some area of the board to win material there.

 

3.4. Endgame

Pawn promotion is of lesser value than in standard chess as the firzan is only slightly stronger than the pawn. It make sense to promote pawns, but this is only one of many possible manoeuvres.

The most important endgame concept is constriction (taking away your opponent's moves) in order to achieve a stalemate or bare king victory.

The stronger side should be careful while exchanging, especially with rook exchanges. There is a risk of a situation similar to opposite-bishops chess ending - extra firzan (or a few) does not help if the weaker side dominates on - say - light squares. For the same reason sometimes it is better to keep an unpromoted pawn, if it keeps an eye on an important square - once promoted, it will never change its square colour.

 

4. Example games

Links to more instructive Shatranj games are welcome

Some example games:

Nice mate in the centre of the board

Rooks invasion - after typical opening black uses open file to invade white position with rooks

Alfils at work - instructive maneouvering game where white particularly effectively uses his alfils (note battle for open file on moves 26 and 37, fork on move 29 and final sacrifice at move 60), also pretty example of constriction strategy in the final part of the game.

Minor piece king hunt - knights and alfil cooperating to construct the mating net.

 

5. Additional info

This Article on Shatranj was published in the SchemingMind Journal. Read it, you will find a lot of valuable information there.

AncientChess.com is selling chess sets being replicas of traditional shatranj pieces (Nishapur chessmen). See their chess history for some pretty photos, and this page for game rules in their redaction.

 


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